Meeting the Needs of Diverse Learners

December 7, 2010

Candidate Work Sample

Filed under: Chapter Summaries and Outside Resources — jjparris @ 9:48 am

CWS Part I

TT2: Candidate Work Sample

Teacher’s Name: Miss Jillian

Grade Level: Kindergarten

School: Oakland Elementary School

Year: 2010

CWS: Section I:

Unit Topic or Title (from the long-range plan (LRP), key element 1.C)

Science, Characteristics of Organisms

CWS Section II:

Contextual factors (from the LRP, key element 1.A)

My Kindergarten students at Oakland Elementary come from widely diverse backgrounds. Each child brings unique characteristics and different learning styles to the classroom. Oakland Elementary is located in Charleston, South Carolina. The class is made up of twenty-one students. There are six African American females, three Caucasian females, one Hispanic female, seven African American males, and four Caucasian males. Oakland qualifies as a Title One school and has an implemented Title One school-wide program.  Out of the twenty-one students in my class, four children have asthma plans; two are allergic to penicillin, one has a moderate hearing impairment and one is lactose intolerant.  There are 466 students enrolled at Oakland. 342 students are African American, 9 are Caucasian, 13 are Hispanic, 12 are Asian or Pacific Islander, and 1 student is American Indian or Alaskan. There are a total of 34 teachers and the student to teacher ratio is 13.8.

Step 1 (I) – Identify Overall Classroom Demands

Classroom Organization

  • The desks will be arranged in a buddy system. The desks will be in rows with two desks paired together. I will change students’ buddies once each month so they are given opportunities to get to know one another. Several factors will be taken into consideration when I make decisions on how to group students. Some of those factors will include personalities, academic achievement, a student’s motivation, and learning styles.  This will facilitate in creating friendships with the goal of benefiting the social and emotional development of children in my classroom. My ambition is that this type of seating arrangement will contribute to creating a sense of community and comfort in the classroom.
  • There will be a comfy carpet for children to come in and sit on each morning in the “Calendar Corner”. We will have morning announcements and move into the calendar lesson. Learning calendar (days of the week, months of the year, time language, weather, etc) is an important skill acquired in Kindergarten.  During this time, we will sing songs and dance to learn these skills. Calendar will last approximately 30 minutes each morning.
  • My classroom will be set up for center time in the mornings following calendar. There will be three large round tables in the back of the room. Each table will contain a center that students will be able to move through, exploring, manipulating, and creating guided by their interests. There will be a writing center, a math center, and an art center. The activities in the centers will relate to what students are learning during whole group instruction and will correlate with South Carolina standards.
  • There will also be a sand and water center, a classroom library, and a dramatic play center in the classroom.
  • The sand and water center will contain different size buckets and water so students can experiment and learn about consistencies properties of water and sand. The sand or water table is a place where children can – and often do – apply the scientific method to their explorations. During “elbow-deep” investigations, they observe, predict, estimate, experiment, and draw conclusions. Though children may not recognize the “science” of what they are doing, you can help them make important connections and develop critical-thinking skills (Church 2000).
  • The classroom library will be in the back of the classroom. It will contain soft rugs and comfy seating, dim lamps, and a wide selection of children’s literature that accommodate for all children’s interests in the classroom. Classroom libraries should include a variety of texts of various formats, genres, and types, including texts that can be applied to study in a range of content areas. Availability of selections for students reading at, above, or below grade level is critical, including many books easy enough for students to “sail through” independently (Catapano, Fleming, & Elias, 2009, p. 62).
  • The dramatic play center will give students the opportunity to play pretend and act out real life situations. This center will contain smaller versions of things found in home, small kitchens, furniture, play food, play cooking utensils, and play cleaning supplies.
  • My classroom will be filled with environmental print. A print rich environment is an invaluable resource to a child’s developing literacy. This includes magazines, labels, logos, and any other print a child might encounter in everyday life. Narrative and expository texts on a range of topics should be plentiful, and environmental print should be included in order to appeal to a range of interests and to expose students to different text formats and types of print. (Catapano, Fleming, & Elias, 2009, p. 62)
  • I will hang up posters in the classroom related to Kindergarten content.  Some examples include alphabet charts, numbers and number words, and weather posters showing and describing the seasons.
  • My students’ work will always be on display.  I will designate an area on each wall of the classroom to fill with only student work. Displaying student work helps to create a family community that is warm and welcoming. It can contribute to students’ academic success through building self-esteem and motivation levels.

Classroom Grouping

  • Most instruction will occur through individual or group guided discovery-style learning. I will spend as much one-on-one time with each child as possible, targeting those students who might be apathetic or disengaged. I will find out what those children are interested in and find meaningful ways to incorporate it into activities.
  • Students will be grouped based on learning styles and student interests. Students who learn in a particular way may cover material through performing entirely different tasks than other students. I want my students to have choices in the way they learn.
  • Students will teach and learn from one another. Students will always be encouraged to engage in discussion of the materials they are learning.
  • Students will occasionally be grouped based on their academic ability levels in math or reading when necessary for assessment or target instruction.

Instructional Materials

  • Technology, like Smart board presentations and interactive lessons, will be used to engage students in the material they are learning.
  • Children’s literature will be used to introduce and explain topics and ideas.
  • Blocks will be used to guide students in the development of their gross motor skills. Blocks also give children ways to use their imagination and show their creativity.
  • Counters will be used at the math center to teach children basic math skills like one-to-one correspondence and counting.
  • Art Supplies will be used to guide students in self-expression using materials and processes to express things they have learned, their feelings, their thoughts and ideas.
  • Nature- I plan on using materials from nature to teach my students. Exposing children to the environment and real objects is key in shaping their understanding of concepts, particularly related to science.

Instructional Methods

  • My desire is to teach by the old saying “tell me I forget, show me I remember, involve me I understand.”
  • Whole Group Instruction will be used to introduce and teach basic skills in major content areas, such as English Language Arts, Math, Social Studies, and Science.
  • Small Group Instruction will be used for students to practice and master these basic skills, and learn from one another while engaging in peer tutoring. During small group instruction, I will move around the classroom and meet with students individually, providing further assistance and scaffolding as needed. Students will also participate in small group instruction during center time as they rotate around the room and engage in center play and discovery learning.
  • Individual and Self-Guided Instruction will be used for students to practice reading skills, write or draw in journals, and complete projects. Many of my informal and formal observations and evaluation of student work will occur through individual instruction.

Student Evaluation

  • Portfolios containing student work will be evaluated each week to assess basic kindergarten knowledge and skills. 
  • Anecdotal Records are written records kept in a positive tone of a child’s progress based on that child’s social, emotional, physical, and cognitive development. I will use these records to record a child’s actions and work throughout the day. The records emphasize “what a child can do and his or her achievements, as opposed to what he or she cannot do,” explains the American Association of School Administrators (North Central Educational Laboratory, 2004).
  • Running Records are methods of assessing reading that can be done quickly and frequently. It is an individually conducted formative assessment, which is ongoing and curriculum based. It provides a graphic representation of a student’s oral reading, identifying patterns of effective and ineffective strategy use. Through a running record, teachers can obtain: information about a student’s use of reading strategies, information about a student’s self-monitoring, an accuracy rate, an error rate, and a self-correction rate. Running records can be used to: Document reading progress over time, help teachers decide what students need to learn, and match students to appropriate books. (Teacher Vision)
  • Observations will play an important role in my evaluation of my students. Informal observations and interactions with my students each day will provide me with a comprehensive view of each child’s learning style, personality, and behavioral patterns. This will enable me to better differentiate instruction for all the children in my class and make accommodations for students who need them.
  • Formal Assessments, such as unit tests, or worksheets may be used occasionally to evaluate student’s mastery of certain skills.

C. Case Study Student Description

D. Danny is a student with a hearing impairment in my Kindergarten class. His impairment is considered moderate, and he uses a hearing aid in his right ear to amplify sounds. Danny, whose hearing was impaired as a result of a fever when he was two, prefers speaking orally with his friends, Jason and Damon. Nonetheless, he does not speak much in class, relying on writing or speaking through an interpreter. Jason and Damon have known Danny since they were toddlers, but this year neither of the boys is in the same class as Danny. I am concerned that Danny is too isolated in his class and would benefit from more peer interaction during instruction. Suggested are adaptations to help Danny adjust to the social components of instruction in his classroom.

  • Step 2 (N)- Note Case Student Strengths & Needs

Academic:

  • The student is an enthusiastic learner (+)
  • The student is engaged while working independently (+)
  • The student’s comprehension of the material is sometimes delayed (-)
  • The student’s math skills are on a Kindergarten level (+)
  • The student’s writing skills are above a Kindergarten level (+)
  • The student’s reading comprehension is above a Kindergarten level (+)
  • The student struggles with reading orally (-)

Social:

  • The student has difficulty making friends (-)
  • The student becomes uncomfortable when interacting with peers (-)
  • The student’s family is encouraging and supportive (+)
  • The student has several close friends at the school (+)

Physical:

  • The student wears a hearing aid due to a moderate hearing impairment in his right ear. The hearing aid amplifies sound and allows the student to hear things at a range close to that of a student with normal range hearing (+)

Step 3 (C) – Check for Potential Case Study Student Successes:

  • The student can participate and become actively involved in class through the use of a hearing aid and translator.
  • The student is a curious learner and active explorer of his environment.
  • The student’s understanding of Kindergarten curriculum is on or above level in each content area
  • The student’s reading comprehension skills are above level.
  • The student is able to write his name.
  • The student is able to count to twenty.
  • The student enjoys reading independently about things that interest him.

Step 4 (L) – Look for Potential Problems (Mismatches):

  • The student has difficulty with reading aloud.   
  • The student becomes disengaged when working with other children.
  • The student is sometimes delayed in understanding material when it is presented in an auditory style. This can lead to the student making careless mistakes or becoming confused about a simple concept.
  • The student has trouble communicating and forming connections with other children in the class.

  1. C. Add a classroom map depicting an ideal learning environment for your students.

http://teacher.scholastic.com/tools/class_setup/

See attached print out of classroom map.

CWS Section III: Unit Plan

CWS Section III, Part A (key element 2.A):

  1. A. Unit outline – make a detailed outline of the instructional unit using the table below. Identify unit objectives and their correlated standards or expectations.

Unit Objectives

(Key element 2.A)

Correlated

Standards/Expectations

1. The student will be able to match parents with their offspring to show that plants and animals closely resemble their parents. Science Standard K-2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the characteristics of organisms. (Life Science)

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2. The student will be able to compare individual examples   of a particular type of plant or animal to determine that there are differences among individuals. Science Standard K-2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the characteristics of organisms. (Life Science)
3. The student will identify the stages of growth and change in organisms known as life cycles. Science Standard K-2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the characteristics of organisms. (Life Science)

B. One Lesson Plan

Science Standard K-2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the characteristics of organisms. (Life Science)

Science Indicator K-2: The student will be able to match parents with their offspring to show that plants and animals closely resemble their parents.

Objective:  The student will create a visual representation of an animal of their choice, and that animal’s offspring, using visual arts processes and materials.

Assessment:  Using their visual creations of an animal and its offspring, the students will identify 4 characteristics that identify and describe the baby animal as belonging to its parents.

Materials:

  1. Toilet paper rolls
  2. Toilet paper roll halves
  3. Glue
  4. Paint
  5. Paintbrushes
  6. Markers
  7. Color cotton balls
  8. Feathers
  9. Googly eyes

10.  Construction paper.

11.  Poster board or Writing paper on an Easel

12.  Animals and Their Young by Pamela Hickman

Procedures:

  1. During whole group instruction, the teacher will introduce students to animals and their young by reading the book Animals and Their Young by Pamela Hickman. The teacher will guide discussion while reading the book by pointing out similarities in animals and their young. The children will be asked to verbally discuss and identify characteristics that identify baby animals with their parents.
  2. The teacher will tell the students that they are going to learn how to identify baby animals and match them with their parents.
  3. The teacher will provide students with an example of an animal and its offspring, created from cardboard toilet paper rolls. The teacher will point out characteristics of the baby animal that identify it as belonging to its mother.
  4. The teacher will tell students they are going to create their own animal and baby animal using toilet paper rolls and art supplies. The teacher will explain to students they need to include four things about their animal and their animal’s baby that tell us they belong together. They can use animals in the book, or choose another animal they would like.
  5. The students will be asked to return to their desks by the buddy system.
  6. The teacher will give students a few moments to decide which animal to create and discuss their choices with their classmates.
  7. After making their selections, the students will come by groups to the counter to collect the supplies they need to create their animal and it’s offspring.
  8. The students will work individually creating their animal. They will be given opportunities for self-assessment of their work; they will also be given opportunities to discuss their animals with their one another.
  9. When everyone has finished creating their animal, the students will return to the carpet. Each students will share why they chose their particular animal, as well as characteristics of their animal and their animals offspring
  10. The teacher will end the lesson with an open discussion with students on why it is important that we can identify baby animals with their parents. The teacher will list the children’s reasons on a poster board and hang it in the classroom on display with the children’s animals.

Adaptations:

If the lesson is too easy:  The teacher will have children think of more ways that the parent animals and their offspring are identifiable with one another. The children may play a game in which they have to match baby animal offspring with their parent. The children may go to the classroom library and select additional books to read about animals and their offspring.

If the lesson is too hard:  The teacher will scaffold children in their zone of proximal development. The teacher will provide one-on-one instruction to those students who have difficulty identifying characteristics that identify baby animals with their parent. The teacher might use the book Animals and Their Young to show children pictures of animals and their parents, and point out similar characteristics. The teacher may use questioning techniques to guide the child to a deeper understanding of the content. Some questions might include: “Think of an animal and a baby animal you have seen together before. What are some ways they looked, sounded, or felt the same?” These types of questions use prior knowledge integration to help students make connections with real life experiences and what they learning.

Resources:

Hickman, Pamela. Animals and Their Young (2003). Kids Can Press: Tonawanda, NY.

Assessment Chart:

Student Name Correctly includes four characteristics matching an animal and its offspring in their creation. Correctly identifies characteristics of animals and their offspring through verbal discussion. Participates and contributes in discussion on reasons for matching animals with their offspring. Notes about each child’s progress & comprehension of the material.

Step 5 (U) – Use information gathered to brainstorm adaptations for your case study student.

Accommodations

  • If the student has difficulty expressing him or herself verbally, then try accepting an alternate form of information sharing, such as a written report or an artistic creation (Bulloch, 2004).
  • If the student has difficulty expressing him or herself verbally, ask questions requiring short answers, and provide a prompt, such as beginning the sentence for the student or giving a picture cue. (Bulloch, 2004).
  • Teach the student to ask questions in class, specifically teach body and language expression, wait for students to respond — don’t call on the first student to raise his hand (Bulloch, 2004).
  • If the student has difficulty expressing him or herself verbally, first ask questions at the information level — giving facts and asking for facts back; then have the student break in gradually by speaking in smaller groups and then in larger group (Bulloch, 2004).
  • The Access Center states that, “Peer tutoring is an instructional strategy that consists of student partnerships, linking high achieving students with lower achieving students or those with comparable achievement.” There has been extensive research on peer tutoring. Studies show that the use of cooperative learning structures and “group reward contingencies” can increase social motivation (Johnson, Maruyama, Nelson, & Skon, 1981; Wentzel, 1999; Slavin, 1990). Level of engagement influences student motivation to achieve classroom goals (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Peer tutoring is an economically and educationally effective intervention for persons with disabilities that can benefit both the tutor and tutee, socially and educationally by motivating them to learn (Miller & Miller, 1995). Peer tutoring gives teachers the capability to accommodate a classroom of diverse learners to improve academic achievement across ability levels and content areas (Cohen, Kulik & Kulik, 1982; Cook, Scruggs, Mastropieri, & Casto, 1985; Johnson, Maruyama, Nelson & Skon, 1981). (The Access Center, 2008)
  • Peer support is an accommodation that is enjoyable for many students and works well for students with hearing impairments. Every student in the classroom has a peer buddy. The students help one another and lend each other support. Teachers can strategically assign students with a hearing impairment (or any special need) a peer buddy, who could easily help him/her with teacher directions, announcements, class discussions and so on. (Dill, 2009)
  • I will communicate with parents of a student with a hearing impairment by providing lecture notes, outlines, or study guides for the student. Since the student may not hear everything I say, he may not be skilled at taking notes. The student will share the notes with his parents for further practice at home if needed. (Dill, 2009)

Modifications

  • Students with hearing impairments can benefit from being asked open-ended questions rather than yes/no questions. The person with the hearing impairment may nod without understanding to any yes/no question. Give clues when you are changing the subject. (Rodrigues, 2008)
  • Have a peer tutor who can assist the person with the hearing impairment in repeating and clarifying directions, taking notes, and assignments. (Rodrigues, 2008)

Step 6 (D) – Decide which adaptations to implement for your case study student.

  • Student will make an individual artistic creation using art materials and processes to show express his knowledge. Individual work and expression can be especially beneficial for the student because he struggles with verbal assessments and social interaction during whole group instruction.
  • Student will be paired with a peer tutor to help clarify directions with the assignment.
  • Student will be asked open-ended questions, instead of yes-no questions. This will provide the student with opportunities to elaborate on his ideas and formulate meaningful connections between real life experiences and the material being learned.
  • I will clarify directions by speaking with the student individually and showing him completed examples of the activity.
  • Student will be provided with books for reading that will deepen his understanding of characteristics of animals and their offspring while working on the project.
  • Student will share his completed project with the class with assistance from his peer buddy.
  • I will send home notes with the student to give his parents. The notes will include key points of the lesson on animals and their offspring. My hope is that the student’s parents will review the notes with him. I also may send home children’s literature related to the material for the parents to read with the student.

Step 7 (E) – Evaluate (case study) student progress

  • I will utilize several assessment strategies to determine the effectiveness of the accommodations and modifications I have implemented for the student with a hearing impairment.  I will use an anecdotal record to track the progress of Danny’s learning and social development. Anecdotal Records are written records kept in a positive tone of a child’s progress based on that child’s social, emotional, physical, and cognitive development. I will also use these records to record Danny’s actions and work throughout the unit. I will record detailed descriptions of his behavior related to his social interaction with other students. I will also record his academic accomplishments through the unit, including evident instances where he grasps a concept; questions he asks that signify a deep understanding of material, and details of his art creation representation. The records emphasize “what a child can do and his or her achievements, as opposed to what he or she cannot do,” explains the American Association of School Administrators (North Central Educational Laboratory, 2004). This lesson from the unit on animals and their offspring was designed to provide the student with an opportunity to learn through exploring creativity and expression. Students with a hearing impairment disability clearly will struggle with auditory learning. Visual arts are an effective way for students to show what they know without necessarily having to speak or listen.  The informal presentation of the project gives the student a low stress environment in which to explore public speaking and being in front of other students. I would pair Danny with a specially selected buddy, with the goal of benefiting his social development and making him feel more comfortable in the classroom.
  1. CWS Section III, Part B (key elements 3.A and 3.C):

Lesson Plan Assessment:

I will pre assess my students prior knowledge of the characteristics of organisms by asking them to share experiences they have had with animals. Through a worksheet or journal entry, I will have students draw a picture including detailed descriptions of something they know about a particular animal. I will have the students share these with one another and with me individually. I will post assess my students’ knowledge of the unit through a final presentation and portfolio, including their creations of animals and their offspring, a laminated chart depicting the life cycles of an animal of their choice (discovered through research in articles, children’s literature, online sources, etc.), and a completed Venn diagram comparing and contrasting two animals of the same species.

  1. CWS Section III, Part D (key elements 2.B):

Activities/Strategies/Materials/Resources

(Key element 2.B)

Unit Objective

Number(s)

Whole class story time with interactive questioning and group discussion (Animals and Their Young).

1, 2, & 3

Students will make artistic creations of an animal and it’s offspring, including characteristics that identify the animal parent and it’s baby as belonging together.

1

Students will share characteristics of their animals through small group discussion, comparing and contrasting their animal creations with those of other students.

1

Students will create a chart depicting the life cycles of an animal of their choice (discovered through research in articles, children’s literature, online sources, etc.)

3

Students will complete a Venn diagram comparing and contrasting two animals of the same species

2

Students will draw a picture in their journals describing an experience they have had with an animal. They will include characteristics of the animal, such as its behavior, its physical characteristics, how it felt, how it sounded, etc.

1, 2, & 3

(Pre- Assessment)

Annotated Bibliography

Church, E. Learning centers: sand and water play. (2000 February). Early Childhood Today. Avaliable http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=3745746

Description: This article from Early Childhood Today, describes how change and flow are two scientific principles children can discover through sand and water play in the classroom. Providing students with these materials to manipulate and explore can provide a foundation for scientific learning and thought. Sand and water centers can help children develop critical thinking skills and make important connections.

Catapano, S, Fleming, J., & Elias, M. (2009). Building an effective classroom library. Journal of Language and Literacy Education [Online], 5(1), 59-73. Available

http://www.coe.uga.edu/jolle/2009_1/building.pdf

Description:  This article from the Journal of Language and Literacy Education describes how a print rich environment is an invaluable resource to a child’s literacy development. Text inside the classroom should appeal to a range of interests and to expose students to different text formats and types of print. Classroom libraries should include a variety of texts of various formats, genres, and types, including texts that can be applied to study in a range of content areas. Students should have selections of books that are at, above, and below their reading levels. Students should have access to books they can “sail through” independently as well as books that are challenging for them.

Learning Point Associates. (2004). Anecdotal records. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. Available http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/methods/instrctn/in5lk37.htm

Description: The North Central Regional Education Laboratory provides a detailed description of anecdotal records and their uses for monitoring children’s development and learning in the classroom. Anecdotal records can play an important role in communicating with parents and involving them in their child’s assessment.

Teacher Vision. (2010). Running records. Family Education Network. Available  http://www.teachervision.fen.com/read-aloud/assessment/48545.html.

Description: This article from Teacher Vision gives an overview of running records. Running records are individualized formal assessments used to assess reading levels. Running records help teachers learn information about a student’s use of reading strategies and self-monitoring strategies. It can also help teachers identify accuracy rates, error rates, and self-conception rates. They can be used to document reading progress over time and help teachers choose books for students. Running records are important because they help teachers monitor students’ progress, and help students and parents understand the child’s reading development.

Bulloch, K. (2004). How to adapt your teaching strategies to students needs. Reading Rockets. Available http://www.readingrockets.org/article/370

Description: Kathleen Bulloch lists strategies for teachers on differentiating instruction for all children in the classroom, including students with special needs. The article lists ideas for teaching students who have trouble listening, who have trouble expressing him or herself verbally, who have trouble reading written material, who have trouble writing legibly, who have trouble expressing themselves through writing, and who have trouble spelling. The article provides an abundance of ideas that can be put to use in the classroom to help children learn effectively.

The Access Center (2008). Using peer tutoring to facilitate access. Reading Rockets. Available http://www.readingrockets.org/article/22029

Description: The Access Center gathered information from research and studies on peer tutoring. The article provides a clear definition of peer tutoring. The article states that peer tutoring is “an instructional strategy that consists of student partnerships, linking high achieving students with lower achieving students or those with comparable achievement.” The article compiles some of the extensive research on peer tutoring and sheds light on its tremendous benefits to student achievement in the classroom, especially for students with special needs.

Rodrigues, J. & Decker, K. (2008). Making modifications, accommodations, and variations for student success. SPEd Resources. Available http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:rqXnCW15y4gJ:www.jimrodslz.com/sped/Disability_Info/Making%2520Modifications%2520Hearing%2520Impaired.pdf+&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgTeOm5HJds2mzmCih6LJ7yP1EKpe9J7Fk0cgjlfcUts8WOCibe9Gpvvgq_-cJtdT-x73xB1jyo2qcOjPTghqe8-z5Ef369Mf0AVe22xTqG-KlAHkF1mrVR-VBPtv7dsTDzP6E3&sig=AHIEtbSTg4VcL4pW1yMoSY02l_cnRT1v1A

Description: Jim Rodrigues, a resource specialist with a M.S. in special education provides information on accommodations and modifications for students with hearing impairments. He lists characteristics of children who have experienced hearing loss, as well as strategies for teaching children with the disability. He teaches teachers how to question students, how to give formal assessments, and how to assists students complete a variety of every day classroom activities.

Dill, M. (2009). How to teach students with hearing impairments when mainstreaming. Bright Hub. Available http://www.brighthub.com/education/special/articles/22573.aspx

Description: Students with hearing impairments are often mainstreamed into the classroom and teachers need to be educated in making appropriate, useful accommodations for these children. This article stresses that simple strategies like peer tutoring and seating charts can make a big difference in learning for a child with a hearing impairment. It also notes that teacher help and communication is key to making sure a child with a hearing impairment clearly understands directions and the material. Some ways to communicate with children are to spend one-on-one time with them through out the school day, and provide them with notes to take home and show their parents. Parents are always an important resource for teachers. For children with hearing impairments, they become an essential part of the learning process.



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